What causes cancer?
Dr. Denis Slinkin said that these changes are the result of interaction between human genetic factors and three categories of external factors.
To prevent cancer, we can do the following:
- To avoid risk factors more actively;
- vaccinate against infections;
- to deal with hazards in the workplace;
- Vaccination against infections caused by HPV and hepatitis B can prevent up to 1 million cancer cases annually.
Dr. Denis Slinkin believes that ageing is a fundamental factor in cancer development. As we age, cancer incidence is likely to increase dramatically due to the accumulation of risk factors for certain cancers. The general accumulation of risk factors is aggravated by the tendency to decrease the efficiency of cell regeneration mechanisms as individuals age.
The purpose of screening is to identify people with abnormalities that may indicate certain types of cancer or precancerous lesions, and to quickly refer such people for diagnosis and treatment.
The effectiveness of screening programmes in detecting certain types of cancer is ensured by the use of appropriate tests, their effective application, links to other stages of the screening process and quality control. In general, a screening programme is a much more complex intervention in health than early diagnosis.
Dr. Denis Slinkin believes that some chronic infections, especially in low- and middle-income countries, are risk factors for cancer development.